What Is Vertical Transmission Disease?

What is an example of a vertical transmission of a disease?

Vertical transmission: Passage of a disease-causing agent (pathogen) from mother to baby during the period immediately before and after birth.

Transmission might occur across the placenta, in the breast milk, or through direct contact during or after birth.

For example, HIV can be a vertically transmitted pathogen..

What are the 3 major portals of entry for disease?

The portal of entry Inhalation (via the respiratory tract) Absorption (via mucous membranes such as the eyes) Ingestion (via the gastrointestinal tract) Inoculation (as the result of an inoculation injury)

Is airborne transmission direct or indirect?

With airborne transmission, direct contact is not needed to spread disease (as compared with respiratory droplet transmission). Infection may be transmitted over short distances by large droplets, and at longer distances by droplet nuclei generated by coughing and sneezing.

Which parasite can be transmitted Transplacentally?

It has been shown that other protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium malariae,28 Toxoplasma gondii,29–31 and Trypanosoma cruzi,32 can cross the placental wall and affect both the mother and the neonate.

What is vertical transmission psychology?

Vertical transmission refers to transmis- sion from parents to offspring, and can be uni- parental or biparental. Vertical transmission does not require genetic relatedness – adoptive parents can transfer knowledge to their adopted children.

How does vertical transmission occur?

Vertical transmission refers to generational transmission of viruses from parents to their offspring. HIV-1, e.g., can be acquired in utero (via breaks in the placental barrier or transcytosis of cell-associated virus), during delivery (intrapartum), or via breastfeeding.

What are the 6 modes of transmission?

Modes of transmissionDirect. Direct contact. Droplet spread.Indirect. Airborne. Vehicleborne. Vectorborne (mechanical or biologic)

What does horizontal transmission mean?

Horizontal transmission is the transmission of organisms between biotic and/or abiotic members of an ecosystem that are not in a parent-progeny relationship. This concept has been generalized to include transmissions of infectious agents, symbionts, and cultural traits between humans.

What are the types of disease transmission?

There are two types of contact transmission: direct and indirect. Direct contact transmission occurs when there is physical contact between an infected person and a susceptible person. Indirect contact transmission occurs when there is no direct human-to-human contact.

What are the four types of disease transmission?

The mode (means) of transmission is the route or method of transfer by which the infectious microorganism moves or is carried from one place to another to reach the new host. The modes (means) of transmission are: Contact (direct and/or indirect), Droplet, Airborne, Vector and Common Vehicle.

What is the most efficient mode of parasite transmission?

In conclusion, the efficiency of parasite transmission from one host to another appears to increase with host density for parasites that rely on contact transmission, ingestion by hosts, or vector transmission.

Which bacteria can cross placenta?

Maternal infections caused by most organisms which can cross the placenta (including rubella, mumps, poliomyelitis, smallpox, rubeola, syphilis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, and infections caused by S typhosa, V fetus, L monocytogenes, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus) may result in abortion or stillbirth.

Is vertical contagious?

Vertical transmission: Passage of a disease-causing agent (pathogen) from mother to baby during the period immediately before and after birth. Transmission might occur across the placenta, in the breast milk, or through direct contact during or after birth. For example, HIV can be a vertically transmitted pathogen.

What does vertical transmission mean quizlet?

Vertical Transmission definition? Transmission of an infection from the parenatal generation to their offspring. This can occur in utero or immediately after birth (ingestion of breast milk or direct contact during or after birth).

Is vertical transmission direct or indirect?

Most health and government organizations classify infectious diseases as being transmitted ‘directly’ (e.g. sexual, vertical, skin-to-skin contact) and ‘indirectly’ (e.g. airborne, vector-borne, vehicle-borne, water- and food-borne) [13–15].

Which portal of entry is most commonly used?

Mucosal surfaces are the most important portals of entry for microbes; these include the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and the genitourinary tract.

What is horizontal and vertical transmission?

In general, transmission of viruses can occur through two pathways: horizontal and vertical transmission. In horizontal transmission, viruses are transmitted among individuals of the same generation, while vertical transmission occurs from mothers to their offspring.

What are the five means of transmission of infection?

The transmission of microorganisms can be divided into the following five main routes: direct contact, fomites, aerosol (airborne), oral (ingestion), and vectorborne. Some microorganisms can be transmitted by more than one route.